如何创建和使用“便携”的 mysql 数据库(修订中)

数据库本质上也是文件,通过文件来存取,如果将数据库做成便携的,可以方便迁移,也能加深使用者对 mysql 本身的理解。

其实谈不上什么原理,mysqlinstalldb 和 mysqld 都支持 datadir 选项的设定,这是能够 portable 使用的基础。其中 mysqlinstalldb 直接加 –datadir= 的启动选项,而 mysqld 加 –defaults-file= 的启动选项指定配置文件,再在配置文件里指定 datadir。

为达到上面的效果,我们先须建立相应的文件夹存放文件,以作为datadir,创建目录如下:

mkdir -p mysql/data mysql/log

创建文件如下:

nano mysql/my.cnf

加入以下内容:

[mysqld]
character-set-server = utf8
replicate-ignore-db = mysql
replicate-ignore-db = test
replicate-ignore-db = information_schema
user    = mysql
datadir = mysql/data
log-error = mysql/mysql_error.log
pid-file = mysql/mysql.pid
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 5000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 1M
join_buffer_size = 1M
thread_cache_size = 300
#thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 3
log-slave-updates
log-bin = mysql/binlog/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 1G
relay-log-index = mysql/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log-info-file = mysql/relaylog/relaylog
relay-log = mysql/relaylog/relaylog
expire_logs_days = 30
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

interactive_timeout = 120
wait_timeout = 120

skip-name-resolve
#master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

#master-host     =   192.168.1.2
#master-user     =   username
#master-password =   password
#master-port     =  3306

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 512M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:256M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0

#log-slow-queries = mysql/slow.log
#long_query_time = 10

为了实现更好的管理,我们还可以创建启动脚本:

nano mysql/mysql

加入以下内容:

#!/bin/sh

mysql_port=3306
mysql_username="admin"
mysql_password="12345678"

function_start_mysql()
{
    printf "Starting MySQL...\n"
    /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &
}

function_stop_mysql()
{
    printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"
    /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown
}

function_restart_mysql()
{
    printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"
    function_stop_mysql
    sleep 5
    function_start_mysql
}

function_kill_mysql()
{
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')
}

if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then
    function_start_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then
    function_stop_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then
function_restart_mysql
elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then
function_kill_mysql
else
    printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n"
fi